Transcript Of Today's Episode
Dr. Martin Jr.: You're listening to the Doctor's In podcast from martinclinic.com. Although we share a lot of practical and our opinion awesome information, what you hear on this podcast is not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent any disease. It's strictly for informational purposes, so enjoy.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Hello, I'm Dr. Martin Jr.
Dr. Martin Sr.: I'm Dr. Martin Sr.
Dr. Martin Jr.: And, this is the Doctor's In podcast and [00:00:30] this is episode 193. So, after a long hiatus I'm back finally.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Welcome back. It was tough doing solo.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Well, it's funny because I've done a couple of these by myself and I always think that if somebody drove by and saw me they think I was crazy just talking to a mic by myself. Yeah, I listen to your episodes. They were very good. You handled yourself very well. Now-
Dr. Martin Sr.: The problem I was having was-
Dr. Martin Jr.: Like I tell you [crosstalk 00:00:57]
Dr. Martin Sr.: ... with getting my blood pressure up was based on whether it [00:01:00] was actually recording.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Actually recording which was funny.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, because at the end of the day, am I just talking to myself or is the thing actually recording me, right? So, because I don't know anything about technology, I wasn't sure if I was working. Anyways, it worked.
Dr. Martin Jr.: [crosstalk 00:01:14] and it worked. It was good. Now I'm back. We have some exciting episodes coming up.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Today, we want to talk about a report that we've written, the report is done. We're just polishing it up a bit and then we'll make the report available. [00:01:30] It's called the four culprits of heart disease. The idea of the report is quite simple actually. It's that doctors have missed the mark completely on heart disease. For far too long, they've blamed it on cholesterol even though statistically 75% of people that have a heart attack have normal cholesterol.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, if not higher.
Dr. Martin Jr.: If not higher. Studies show even people taking [00:02:00] cholesterol lowering medication have really no higher rate. They don't live longer.
Dr. Martin Sr.: No.
Dr. Martin Jr.: They have way more symptoms because a lot of people have a hard time ... the most common symptom people notice on that is they don't feel well. They feel sore, painful.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, usually very tired.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Very tired. It increase the risk of diabetes, fact. Increase your-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Almost by 50%.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yeah, it's insane. Imagine taking a drug to help your heart, [00:02:30] it gives you diabetes and diabetes ends up killing your heart. It's a funny thing, but trillions of dollars later, here we are. Heart disease still the number one killer in North America despite the fact that the guidelines for statin drugs pretty much makes it that everybody after a certain age needs to take them. Blood pressure, same thing, was done on blood pressure. They lowered the number needed to [00:03:00] be diagnosed with high blood pressure making it. So, a large percentage of the population woke up one next day.
Dr. Martin Sr.: They were diagnosed with high blood pressure.
Dr. Martin Jr.: The day before they changed the guidelines, they were fine. The day after, they needed medication. Again, a lot of people taking those medications have a hard time. They don't feel well. They get a lot of symptoms. Biggest one is fatigue. We see that all the time.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Well, and those are linked too. I think we've done ... I don't know if it was just a live video that I did or no, I [00:03:30] think it was a live video but I'm not quite sure whether we even had ... whether we did a session on what those medications, what it affects your cognitive in the brain in the long run. That those people seem to be much more susceptible later on in life to have dementia and Alzheimer's and that there seems to be links to a lot of medications including blood pressure medications that affect your brain in the long term. So, yeah, you keep your blood pressure maybe down.
Dr. Martin Jr.: [00:04:00] Well, it's funny about that also. There's a group of drugs that people get prescribed that when they are prescribed those medications, the doctors pretty much assuming they'll be on them for the rest of their lives, right? You never hear a doctor say, "Oh, we got your cholesterol level down. Now, get off the drugs."
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: No, it's, "Better stay on them."
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah. I had a patient in this morning and again I go over all their medications. Well, not to take them off their meds. I just want to know what they're taking. I mean it's important. This guy said well ... [00:04:30] he has a stroke. So, I said, "Well, okay. I knew what cocktail he probably be on." I said, "Well, what were your cholesterol numbers?" He said, "Well, my cholesterol is normal." He said, "By the way, ever since I taken that medication, I haven't felt well." I said, "Well, you should be talking to your doctor about maybe coming off of that one." He said, "I did, but the doctor said, "Yeah, your cholesterol was normal but we can't take a chance."" They just get into that mindset that once you're on, you got to stay on even though [00:05:00] if things got better and again in this guy's case, obviously he didn't get the stroke from cholesterol because his cholesterol was always normal. The doctor even admitted, "Oh, no, no. He said I'm just doing this as prevention." So, it really isn't prevention, but unfortunately we live in that system. A lot of our people that are listening to us today know exactly [crosstalk 00:05:22]
Dr. Martin Jr.: It's coming around, but a lot of cardiologist would still go through their cholesterol medications, the high [00:05:30] blood pressure medications. They would still fall-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, it's a cocktail, right? Here, this. You got to take it.
Dr. Martin Jr.: They would follow that still to this day even though research has swung the other way. Again, we've always maintained that your body is so ... it needs cholesterol so much. It's so important that your body does not trust you to get it form your diet. It makes it on its own.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, exactly.
Dr. Martin Jr.: It is so necessary-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, we can't live without cholesterol.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... that they-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Your cells are made up of it.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... even eating cholesterol doesn't have an effect on cholesterol levels. It's negligible.
Dr. Martin Sr.: [00:06:00] Even making bile. If you think what bile is, right? Your body needs bile.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yeah, it's just ... it's-
Dr. Martin Sr.: In order to absorb your nutrients properly and this and that. I mean, you don't even make bile if you don't have enough cholesterol. So, you're not even going to be digesting properly without cholesterol.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, what we want to do is talk about four culprits we call them that are better indicators than cholesterol for heart disease because well first of all, [00:06:30] it's really not that hard to be a better indicator than cholesterol because for all intents and purposes, if they were relying on that ... if you're relying to pick up cholesterol to detect heart attacks, that's a fail. That's a massive fail. So, we want to talk about four better than cholesterol culprits when it comes to heart disease. These are really in our opinion, this is what's behind heart attacks. This is what's behind heart disease, clots, and strokes and all those kind of thing. So, that's what we're going to talk [00:07:00] about today. If we don't have enough time in this episode, then we'll continue on the next one, but we'll definitely start breaking it down. So, I'll name the four culprits and then we'll go through each of them one at a time.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, the four culprits are this: homocysteine, endothelial dysfunction, nitric oxide and C reactive protein. We'll break those down each and every one of them. Now let's start with homocysteine because it's funny. Very few people listen to this podcast will have heard [00:07:30] the term homocysteine yet it is honestly one of the most important things to watch out for when it comes to heart and cardiovascular health.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, I remember even it's got to be over ... it's well over 20 years ago reading I think it was a functional medicine doctor talking about the importance of homocysteine and checking for that, because if your homocysteine ... if you're not clearing out your homocysteine, right?
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yes, let's talk about-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Like talk about that but just [00:08:00] what he was saying is that you need to look at that thing because if you're homocysteine levels are high, your risk of having a heart attack or a stroke are gone up but I can't remember what he said back 20 years ago what the percentage was. It was really high and it was surprising because you almost never ever hear-
Dr. Martin Jr.: [crosstalk 00:08:19] You never hear of it.
Dr. Martin Sr.: You never hear of a doctor actually testing for it.
Dr. Martin Jr.: For those that are listening that are not sure what it is, homocysteine is basically a toxic byproduct from [00:08:30] normal amino acid metabolism. The analogy that we like to use is burning wood in a fireplace. So, a byproduct of burning wood is smoke. What the problem is, is that you need-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Like smoke to get out.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... you got to clear that, right? Obviously.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, you can imagine burning that wood gives you all the warmth that you need and that's a fantastic effect. You need that to take place just like you need amino acid metabolism to take place, but a byproduct of that [00:09:00] warmth that you get from the wood is the smoke. The byproduct of amino acid metabolism is homocysteine. Now the thing is just like smoke in a fireplace, it has to get cleared. It can't get blocked in there because that's when you start to run into some-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Oh yeah. If your ducts get blocked up in a chimney, one of the most dangerous things and we live in Northern Ontario and some people actually heat their homes by wood, right? I mean, that's wonderful. It's a lot cheaper than-
Dr. Martin Jr.: [00:09:30] Imagine if a vent gets clogged and then smoke fills your house.
Dr. Martin Sr.: That's why they pay more for insurance.
Dr. Martin Jr.: That's right. Smoke fills your house. It can ruin all ... the smoke can ruin everything.
Dr. Martin Sr.: It's very dangerous, right?
Dr. Martin Jr.: That's the same thing that can happen inside your blood vessels when it comes to getting rid of homocysteine metabolism and what happens is that they get ... the process to get rid of that toxic byproduct it breaks down and as a result you start to accumulate this stuff called homocysteine. Then that gets extremely [00:10:00] dangerous because that affects the ability of blood to flow through your blood vessels which is why homocysteine is a significant marker of heart disease. It's a significant marker of heart disease. So, that's one of the big things. Now, we'll talk about a couple of studies in a second just that they found them interesting, but I don't think we can stress enough how much of an indicator this is for [00:10:30] heart disease.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah. You wonder if it's not the number one indicator.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yeah. It'd be interesting to look at it.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Your CRP and your C reactive protein. We'll talk about-
Dr. Martin Jr.: Especially combining these four culprits which we'll look at but-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Nitric oxide. These are all fascinating things because this is big, big, big time prevention that we're talking about today.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, what happens is that when you start to accumulate homocysteine, it actually starts to injure and irritate the walls of your blood vessels which we'll talk about next in the culprit. So, what happens, your blood starts to thicken. It increases [00:11:00] the risk of clots and from there obviously that could trigger heart attacks. It could trigger a whole bunch of things from there. Now, how dangerous is homocysteine? Well, again, as we said it's a significant risk factor for heart attack and studies have shown this that people with elevated levels of homocysteine are nearly double the risk of a major memory loss as well because obviously [crosstalk 00:11:23] brain.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Blood vessels. Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, homocysteine not only kills your heart, but it can affect the health of your brain and [00:11:30] think of what that can do for dementias. Think what that can do for Alzheimer's. So, there's a definite effect on the brain, but when it comes to the heart, too much homocysteine levels can increase the risk of a heart attack and various studies have shown different things by about 300%. That's how dangerous it can be, right? There was that large study that was done on US physicians. It was done over a long period of time. They used almost 15,000 doctors in the study. They found homocysteine [00:12:00] to be an independent risk factor for heart disease. Again, over and over again, homocysteine is a problem. When it starts to accumulate, it becomes a big problem and then your heart is at risk and your brain is at risk. We'll talk about also in a little bit how to fix these things or-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, how to help them all.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... how you can help them all because what we're doing now is we're talking of four culprits. Then we'll talk about what causes the culprits and then we'll talk about how to fix the culprits.
Dr. Martin Sr.: How to fix it. Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: All right. So, the first one [00:12:30] was homocysteine. Let's talk about the second one which goes along with homocysteine and that's something called endothelial dysfunction.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah. What's the endothelial?
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yeah. So, the best way to think of endothelial just like those Teflon pans, right? I guess back in the day and a lot of people still use them, they use Teflon cooking because you never have to spray nothing, everything slides right off of it.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, nothing sticks.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Nothing sticks, right? So, the inner lining-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Of your blood vessels.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... are Teflon like and it's meant for-
Dr. Martin Sr.: It's supposed to [00:13:00] be.
Dr. Martin Jr.: They're supposed to be. Things pass through. They don't get stuck to the lining of the walls, because if there's an area on the wall of your blood vessels that can get stuck, then things accumulate there and that could cause some big time problems. So, you have this Teflon like inner layer of your blood vessels that ... and that's called your endothelium. So, the endothelium is just basically just think of Teflon. That's what it's there. Your blood vessels are lined by it. Now you have over 60,000 miles of blood vessels in your body.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Fearfully [00:13:30] and wonderfully made, isn't it incredible?
Dr. Martin Jr.: Your blood vessels, yours can circle the globe. That's the distance of blood vessels in our bodies. It's incredible to think about it and-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Isn't it one and a half times around the equator or something like that?
Dr. Martin Jr.: It's crazy. What's even ... you'll pump a million barrels of blood in your lifetime. 1800 gallons of blood go through your vessels each and every day. It's crazy how ... so you can [00:14:00] imagine 60,000 miles of blood vessels you need it to work well because if you start to run into a problem and your endothelial layer, which is that Teflon like layer lining, and things start to accumulate, well that's when you start getting strokes and-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Well, even elevated blood pressure.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... blood pressure, absolutely, right? So, you can see that's how important this endothelial layer is. Now there's something called endothelial dysfunction because what happens for various reasons is the inner lining [00:14:30] gets damaged and then it gets rough and then things start to stick to it. Then the walls get weaker and then you can imagine it can expand in a bad area. For example, you look at a tire that blows out or you see a bike tire when it ... the lining got weak and there's like a-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Little bulge.
Dr. Martin Jr.: ... little bulge in it, right? That's what can happen to your blood vessels.
Dr. Martin Sr.: That makes that tire how much more susceptible to a blow out or whatever, right?
Dr. Martin Jr.: That's what endothelial dysfunction is. Now, [00:15:00] how do you know if you have endothelial dysfunction because that's an interesting question? It's scary to think about this but the Mayo Clinic, they did a study a while ago. They found that a weight gain of only nine pounds. The biochemistry and the metabolic stuff involved in gaining weight can trigger a form of endothelial dysfunction. So, your blood vessel linings are sensitive but they're so crucial to normal heart function.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Again, we have 60,000 miles of this. It's crazy. [00:15:30] It's amazing how strong our endothelial is to begin with to cover all that area, but anyways, let's move on here. So, if you don't have a healthy endothelial layer and there are a lot of things that can damage it, right? Free radical damage is a big one. Inflammation which we'll talk about again in a few minutes. So, you have inflammation. You have all these things regardless that inner lining gets in trouble and then things start to accumulate. Homocysteine [00:16:00] is all those things. So, it's fascinating to think about. So, that's the second culprit.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Okay.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Let's talk about the third one. The third one is really interesting because the guy who discovered it are the team. I think there was three guys who discovered it, won a Nobel Prize for it.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Nitric oxide.
Dr. Martin Jr.: That's nitric oxide.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Uh-hmm (affirmative).
Dr. Martin Jr.: Nitric oxide is that little gas molecule that when it's released, it causes vasodilation. Now vasodilation is just a fancy [00:16:30] way of saying opening up, right?
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yep.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, the gas, nitric oxide directly causes your blood vessels to open up.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah. I remember when they ... I think it was 1980 or somewhere around there when they ... because when I was in school they really didn't even know what nitric oxide was, but one thing we did know in school is what nitroglycerin did. So, it's that same principle. They didn't really know why nitroglycerin worked. They gave you that for angina but think of what it is. Angina [00:17:00] would be a spasm because of the lack of blood supply to the heart. The heart would go into a spasm. It would give you severe pain and it wasn't necessarily heart attack, but your heart was going into a spasm. They give you a nitroglycerin.
Dr. Martin Sr.: I remember those days when they give you something in your mouth, let it melt in your mouth or I think they use it in patches even today that you get. What does that do? It just opened up your blood vessels. Within seconds, the patient that was getting angina [00:17:30] would get relief, right? It would just take that spasm away. So, think of nitric oxide by the same principle. That same molecule opens up the blood vessels. You got better blood supply, right? So, we're big proponents. We've been talking about nitric oxide for a long time. That's important for your blood vessels big time.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Also, the effect it has again on your brain. So, a lot of the things that we talk about and just as an aside that's good for your heart is also very good for your brain.
Dr. Martin Sr.: [00:18:00] Yeah, heart and brain, heart and brain.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, a lot of times what's good for one is good for the other. The same goes with nitric oxide. Studies have shown the importance that nitric oxide plays even in your ability to remember things. It's fascinating. I didn't know this as well and as I was doing more research and looking at all the function of nitric oxide, it literally strengthens your bones from the inside out. Your bones need nitric oxide to be healthy. It's funny because you never hear that, [00:18:30] right? Again, people still talk calcium. We talk magnesium for bones and vitamin D3 for bones, but you need nitric oxide to have healthy bones.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Even in the inside of the bone.
Dr. Martin Jr.: The problem is this. After the age of 40-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Even for your immune system, I think you need [crosstalk 00:18:50] nitric oxide, right?
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yeah, 100%. You need it to be healthy. Your brain needs it to be healthy. Your heart needs it to be healthy. Your bones need it to be healthy. Your immune system needs it to be healthy [00:19:00] and even look at the effect that low nitric oxide has on men's health specifically.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Right.
Dr. Martin Jr.: There's a whole-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Sexually and-
Dr. Martin Jr.: There's a whole industry of erectile dysfunction that is a low nitric oxide problem.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Again, we'll talk more about the fixes coming up but first-
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah and even some of the causes of low nitric oxide.
Dr. Martin Jr.: We'll go through all that stuff because it's all fascinating.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah.
Dr. Martin Jr.: So, nitric oxide like we said does a whole bunch [00:19:30] of stuff that you need and after the age of 40, nitric oxides normally, so it's normal, it goes down. As your ability to make nitric oxide decisions, then you start to run into a whole bunch of problems with your circulation, your blood pressure, your brain and everything. Now there are a lot of thing that can cause nitric oxide to decrease faster than just age and we'll talk about [00:20:00] that coming up in a few minutes, but just keep in mind as we age, nitric oxide naturally decreases. So, obviously, anything that would naturally boost nitric oxide is fantastic for health. So, the third culprit ... so we've talked about homocysteine. We've talked about endothelial dysfunction. We just talked about nitric oxide. Now let's just talk about that fourth one which obviously is CRP which is just a marker for inflammation.
Dr. Martin Sr.: [00:20:30] C-reactive protein.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Now, inflammation, we've said this before and we'll say it again is found in all disease. Doesn't mean it's the cause of all disease. Something causes inflammation but inflammation is found in all diseases. Same thing goes with heart disease. If you have a heart attack or you have heart disease or you have a stroke, you have inflammation.
Dr. Martin Sr.: 100%.
Dr. Martin Jr.: That's a guarantee. It's what's causing that inflammation.
Dr. Martin Sr.: I always liked what you always said about inflammation. It's something I've never [00:21:00] forgotten. It's disease with ... it's like an infection almost but without a fever, right? It's disease or a sickness without a fever, because we used to look at disease. Well, you can imagine, go back and then you look at most diseases when you went back were caused by infection, right? They had a fever and they got sick. I mean, that's very common but this is ... inflammation is that without a fever, right?
Dr. Martin Jr.: It's [00:21:30] the new fever.
Dr. Martin Sr.: It's the new fever, right? You might not-
Dr. Martin Jr.: A lot of diseases have a fever but it's not a fever, it's inflammation which is why inflammation is the new fever. So, if you had a bacterial infection, you had a fever. So, you knew you had a bacterial infection. Now, if you have a disease or a chronic illness, how do you now you have it? Because, you have inflammation. So, inflammation is the marker in the body that tells you there's something going on but also it's causing the issues, but [00:22:00] something is causing that inflammation. We did a video a while ago when we talk on our website. You can find it on leaky gut and we talk about the three seeds of disease. All disease ... take heart disease, number one killer. Reverse engineer it. Inflammation is present. Well, what causes inflammation? The 80-20 rule. What causes 80% of the inflammation in people that have heart disease? One of the three things, free radical damage, [00:22:30] leaky gut syndrome, high circulating insulin. That covers 80% plus of people that have inflammation if not more.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Absolutely.
Dr. Martin Jr.: What we always talk about add the accelerator, so inflammation.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Cortisol.
Dr. Martin Jr.: If inflammation is a fire, think of cortisol, the stress hormone, as an accelerant throwing gasoline on that fire. That's when cortisol takes something that's there and makes it much, much worse. So, inflammation [00:23:00] is a powerful marker of heart disease which is why there are studies that show the association between gum disease. You ask a dentist what a good marker of heart disease, they'll tell you gingivitis, inflammation.
Dr. Martin Sr.: What's the connection. Exactly.
Dr. Martin Jr.: It's inflammation.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Now, I don't know if you know this or I ever brought this up, but years and years ago, this is well over 20 years ago. There was a study that came out of Laurentian University [00:23:30] which is the-
Dr. Martin Jr.: In our backyard.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Right in our backyard literally, right in Sudbury here, where they did a study on C-reactive protein and being a marker for heart disease. You know what the headline was? Here's the headline. This marker will tell you up to seven years ahead of time whether you are susceptible to get a heart attack or not. That was the headline. I remember reading it. I mean, it was fascinating. Go back. I'm talking 20 years ago about the marker of inflammation. C-reactive protein [00:24:00] tells you about something that is often very silent because people think of inflammation, they think of pain, right?
Dr. Martin Jr.: Yeah, and it's-
Dr. Martin Sr.: My knee is inflamed.
Dr. Martin Jr.: It's true. I mean, inflammation is the source of pain especially if it gets in the joints or the muscles, but inflammation is so much more than pain.
Dr. Martin Sr.: I like the idea of your signals. If you and I are doing hand signals across ... we're just across the street from each other, you can see my hands [00:24:30] and I can see your hands and we're hand signalling like whatever, right? Inflammation is like fog that comes in between us and now you can't even see each other.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Can't communicate.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Can't communicate now because I can't see you. The fog's so thick.
Dr. Martin Jr.: That's what happens. Cells communicate with messengers and inflammation messes that up. It irritates them.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Yeah, because they can't communicate properly [crosstalk 00:24:53]
Dr. Martin Jr.: Somebody else was ... and they gave a good analogy a while ago and I heard this. I thought it was interesting. It's inflammation is like throwing sandpaper between your cells. [00:25:00] Irritates them, makes it made. Just irritates everything. It messes everything up. So, inflammation is a powerful marker of heart disease. So, when you take the four markers that we talked about homocysteine, you throw that in with a messed up endothelial dysfunction, you add in there low nitric oxide and you toss in inflammation into the mix, and you have the recipe for heart disease. You also have the recipe for a lot more than just heart [00:25:30] disease, but you definitely have the recipe for bad things. Those are much better markers than cholesterol is for heart disease. It's not even close.
Dr. Martin Jr.: Those are the things that they should be looking for in a panel for heart health or for health in general, because those are the things that will give the clinician and the patient a much better indication what's going on at the heart level. So, those are the four culprits. All right. [00:26:00] We're out of time. In the next episode, we're going to talk about what causes the four culprits and what you can do naturally to help fight those four culprits. So, we got some good stuff coming up on the next episode. So, again, we want to thank you for listening and have a great day.
Dr. Martin Sr.: Thanks for listening to The Doctor Is In Podcast from martinclinic.com. If you have any questions, you can reach us at firstname.lastname@example.org. If you’re not a newsletter [00:26:30] subscriber, you can head to our website and sign up for free. We also have a private Facebook group that you can join. It’s a community of awesome people. Finally, I do a Facebook Live every Thursday morning at 8:30. Join us again next week for a new episode.